Retezat Mountains

Containing more than 60 peaks over 7,500 feet and over 100 crystal clear deep glacier lakes, the Retezat Mountains are some of the most beautiful in the Carpathians and include Romania’s first national park. Retezat National Park is a natural reserve area covering more than 275 sq mi., including 4.500 square acres in a strictly protected scientific reserve area called “Gemenele”. The area shelters one of Europe’s last remaining, unaffected natural primary forest and the largest single area of pristine mixed forest. Wolves, brown bear, wild boar, lynx, wildcat, chamois, roe and red deer, as well as small carnivore species such as badger and otter populate the area. In 1979 the Man and Biosphere Program of UNESCO included the park in the international network of biosphere reserves.

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Retezat Mountains

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Retezat Mountains 45.356488, 22.951813 Retezat MountainsContaining more than 60 peaks over 7,500 feet and over 100 crystal clear deep glacier lakes, the Retezat Mountains are some of the most beautiful in the Carpathians and include Romania\'s first national park, Retezat National Park.For more information, please see section \"Retezat Mountains\". (Directions)

South Retezat Region

The southern approaches to the Retezat extend from the town of Vulcan on the east end of the valley to Campusel on the west end of the valley. Although there are several points of entry into the Retezat Mountains from the towns of Vulcan, Lupeni, Uricani, Cimpu lui Neag, and points in between, direct access to the National Park begins in the Cheile Butii area (approximately 35 km west of Petrosani) and extends west to Campusel. Bus service provides access from all Jiu Valley towns to as far west as Cimpu lui Neag. From there, visitors can hike west along the main valley road to the National Park border near Cheile Butii (approx. 3-4 km).

North Retezat Region

The Retezat Mountains and Retezat National Park are accessible from the North by way of Romania’s Route 66 (DN-66) and/or by way of train, which runs alongside Route 66, from Petrosani to the southeast or Simeria to the North. From Route 66, there are several gateways into the Retezat Mountains. Almost all the villages along the highway, from Ohaba de sub Piatra, just outside of Hateg, to Merisor, just outside of Petrosani, have access roads that run south into the Retezat Mountains. From any of these towns, taxis can take visitors directly to forest areas. Distances from Route 66 and train stations to the forest areas vary from 10-15 km.

The three main entrances into the North Retezat are located south of the towns of Pui, leading to Baleia, Ohaba de sub Piatra, leading to Carnic / Pietrele, and Carnesti, located on the northwest side of the park on Route 68, leading south along Route 685, which acts as the western border of the National Park. The entrance from Ohaba de sub Piatra, is the easiest approach to the National Park and the protected scientific reserve. Carnesti also provides access to the Park. Pui provides access to the Retezat mountains but not the National Park.

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Wikipedia (en)
Retezat mountains
Retezat-VederedepeVarfuMare-2463m.jpg
The Retezat Mountains seen from atop one of them (Vârfu Mare, "The Big Peak")
Highest point
PeakPeleaga
Elevation2,509 m (8,232 ft)
Coordinates45°21′57″N 22°53′33″E / 45.36583°N 22.89250°E / 45.36583; 22.89250
Geography
Modelare 3D pentru Muntii Retezat, Romania.gif
CountryRomania
Range coordinates45°22′N 22°52′E / 45.367°N 22.867°E / 45.367; 22.867Coordinates: 45°22′N 22°52′E / 45.367°N 22.867°E / 45.367; 22.867
Parent rangeSouthern Carpathians
Bordering rangesAlps
Geology
OrogenyAlpine orogeny

The Retezat Mountains (Romanian: Munții Retezat, Hungarian: Retyezát-hegység) are one of the highest massifs in Romania, being part of the Southern Carpathians. The highest peak is Peleaga (Vârful Peleaga), at an altitude of 2,509 metres (8,232 ft). Other important peaks are Păpușa (Vârful Păpușa, "the Doll Peak") and (Vârful Retezat). The name means "cut off" in Romanian.

View over Lake Bucura from Peleaga Peak - photo by Daniel Ighisan

Geography

The Retezat Mountains have many glacial lakes, including the largest glacial lake in Romania, Bucura Lake (Lacul Bucura), which covers 8.9 hectares (22 acres) and is situated at an altitude of 2,030 metres (6,660 ft). The area also contains the Retezat National Park, Romania's first national park.

Bucura Lake, the largest glacial lake in Romania
A waterfall on the Stânisoara stream

River systems and lakes

The tectonic, lithologic and morphologic conditions present in the Retezat mountains, correlated with the orientation of the ridges towards the main air masses make this mountain group the most humid area in the Romanian Carpathians. The hydrologic network is divided into two main directions: north, towards the river Strei (the Mureș drainage basin) where all the rivers from the west, north and north-east areas of the massif are flowing and south, towards the river Jiul de Vest (the Jiu drainage basin). The most important river course is Râul Mare with an annual average flow of 12.9 m3/s. Waterfalls are present on all water courses in the park.

One of the specific features of the Retezat mountains is the widespread presence of glacier lakes. Approximately 38% of the glacier lakes of Romania are found here, on the bottom of calderas, grouped in lake clusters or isolated, and are one of the biggest tourist attraction of the park. Within the massiff limits, there are 58 permanent glacier lakes, between 1700 m and 2300 m. Some sources mention over 80 lakes, but here are most likely included the temporary ones as well.

The surface of the lakes varies between 300 m2 () and 88612 m2 (Bucura), the largest glacier lake in Romania. The depth of the lakes varies between 0.3m () and 29 m (), while the volume is between 90.3 m3 () and 693.152 m3 (Zănoaga).

Flora

Of the approximately 3500 plant species that are found in Romania, over a third (about 1200) can be found here. This is mainly the reason why this area was declared a National park. There are over 90 plant species that are endemic to this area, the first one being discovered in 1858: (Draba dorneri).

The alpine meadows are particularly important, as here are found most of the alpine species, such as members of the genera Gentiana, Potentilla and Pulsatilla. The edelweiss can also be found here. At the limits between the rocky area and the alpine fields, species of rhododendron (Rhododendron kotschii) can be found. The mountain pine, a protected species in Romania, can be found on all the steep slopes of the Retezat mountains, while the Swiss pine (Pinus cembra) has a wider distribution than in any other Romanian massif.

Other species that can be found here are: hawkweed (Hieracium borzae and Hieracium nigrilacus), members of the genus Centaurea (Centaurea pseudophrygia ratezatensis, an endemic species), cat's ear (), an endemic species of locoweed (Oxytropis jacquinii retezatensis) and Gentiana lutea (ro. Ghinţura galbenă). On the calcareous areas of the , a lot of rare or endemic species can be found, like Barbarea lepuznica (a species of the winter cress genus) or Pedicularis baumgarteni, a species of the genus Pedicularis.

The biggest threat for the park's flora (especially the one found on the alpine fields), is overgrazing, as there are numerous herds of sheep. The species specific to this area are replaced by less fragile ones.

Fauna

A small group of chamois with Bucura Lake in the background.

Over 185 species of birds, more than half of the species that can be found in Romania, visit the park. Out of these, over 122 species nest here. Rare birds, such as the golden eagle, (also represented on the park logo), lesser spotted eagle, short-toed eagle, peregrine falcon, western capercaillie, Eurasian eagle-owl, Eurasian pygmy-owl and the black stork reside here.

There are 55 species of mammals within the park range. There are favorable conditions here for some of Europe's biggest predators to survive: the gray wolf, brown bear and the Eurasian lynx; some big herbivores like the chamois, red deer and the roe deer, while small carnivores such as the wildcat and the European otter can also be found.

In 1973, 20 alpine marmots, brought from the Austrian Alps, were introduced in the park and released in the glacier lake caldera. Nowadays they are found all over the park, but the impact that this nonindigenous species had on other plants or animals is yet unknown. Also, after 1960, the brown trout was introduced in some of the park lakes. Studies are now being performed to check if they are responsible for the decline in amphibian population through these lakes, observed during the last years.

A subspecies of the smooth newt (L. vulgaris ampelensis), endemic to the Charpatian mountains, lives here, while the European common frog can be fould all over the park. Although very few common European viper bites were reported, tourists and villagers often kill them on sight. There are several endemic invertebrate species found here: nine endemic species of butterflies, at least six species belonging to the Plecoptera order, and four belonging to the Trichoptera order.

seen from , across Gemenele–Tău Negru Reservation

Access

South Retezat Region

The southern approaches to the Retezat extend from the Jiu Valley city of Vulcan on the east end of the valley to Câmpușel on the west end of the valley. Although there are several points of entry into the Retezat Mountains from the towns of Vulcan, Lupeni, Uricani, , and points in between, direct access to the National Park begins in the Cheile Buții area (approximately 35 km west of Petroșani) and extends west to Câmpușel.

North Retezat Region

The Retezat Mountains and Retezat National Park are accessible from the North by way of Romania's Route 66 (DN-66) and/or by way of train, which runs alongside Route 66, from Petroșani to the southeast or Simeria to the North. From Route 66, there are several gateways into the Retezat Mountains. Almost all the villages along the highway, from Ohaba de sub Piatră, just outside Hațeg, to Merișor, just outside Petroșani, have access roads that run south into the Retezat Mountains.

Highest peaks

The Retezat massif peaks with an elevation of over 2300m are:

  • Peleaga 2509 m
  • Păpușa 2508 m
  • 2482 m
  • 2463 m
  • 2457 m
  • 2433 m
  • 2400 m
  • 2398 m
  • 2372 m
  • 2372 m
  • 2370 m
  • 2370 m
  • 2348 m
  • 2347 m
  • 2346 m
  • 2340 m
  • 2335 m
  • 2324 m
  • 2311 m

Image gallery

External links

Wikipedia (ro)
Vedere spre lacul Bucura
Vârful Peleaga

Munții Retezat fac parte din Carpații Meridionali, grupa muntoasă Retezat-Godeanu. Se înalță între două depresiuni importante, Petroșani și Hațeg și între două râuri importante, Râul Mare, care îi delimitează la nord și est și Jiul de Vest, care îi delimitează la sud. Sunt înconjurați de Munții Țarcu la vest, Munții Godeanu, la și Munții Vâlcan, la sud.

Partea cea mai importantă a masivului este alcătuită în principal din roci cristaline și se numește Retezatul Mare; partea sudică, cu relief dezvoltat și în mase mai importante de calcare, se numește Retezatul Mic. Acestea se unesc în apropierea lacului Bucura.

Vârfuri

Cel mai înalt vârf din Munții Retezat este vârful Peleaga având o altitudine de 2509 m. Este un vârf pe care se poate ajunge destul de ușor dinspre Poiana Pelegii trecând pe la lacul Bucura, lac care poate fi admirat în toată splendoarea lui de la înălțimea celor 2509 metri ai Pelegii. Se urmează Curmătura Bucurei, apoi custura. Pe Vârful Peleaga se poate ajunge și din Valea Pelegii pe la Lacul Pelegii; în apropierea lui se află Vârful Păpușa (2508m).

Vârful Peleaga şi lacul Bucura, Munţii Retezat

Cabane și refugii

Cabane

Refugii

  • Refugiul Salvamont Bucura
  • Refugiul Salvamont Zănoaga [2]
  • Refugiul Stâna de Râu
  • Refugiul Condor [3]

Lacuri

Lacurile din Munții Retezat sunt majoritatea de origine glaciară, din care 40 lacuri mari și mijlocii, 18 lacuri mărunte, toate permanente. Dintre acestea cele mai importante din punct de vedere turistic sunt:

Note

Vezi și

Lectură suplimentară

  • Munții Retezatului, România. Oficiul Național de Turism Carpați, Editura Oficiul Național de Turism Carpați, 1960

Legături externe

Commons
Wikimedia Commons conține materiale multimedia legate de Munții Retezat

Reportaje

Drumul Național 66A

Imagini

Masivul Retezat văzut de pe Vârful Mare 2.463 m -
- Cele mai înalte vârfuri care se văd, de la stânga la dreapta, sunt Păpușa, Peleaga și Retezat
.



Wikipedia (en/ro)

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